Augmentative and Alternative Communication

The augmentative and alternative communication articles are broken down into studies focusing on picture based communication, speech generating devices, and those with picture based communication and speech generating devices.

A review of the efficacy of the picture exchange communication system intervention

Jun 21, 2013, 10:48 AM
Preston, D. & Carter, M. (2009). A review of the efficacy of the Picture Exchange Communication System intervention. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39, 10, 1471-1486.


  • Grade/Age Level: 4 groups (<5, 5-8, 9-17 & 18+)
  • Specific Difficulty Addressed: Communication
  • Type of AT Used: Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS)



  • Review of 27 studies, including articles from 1992-July 2007 using PECS (Frost and Bondy’s protocol) as part of or the whole intervention.
  • Across studies, participants included 456 children with autism, with little to no functional communication.


  • PECS is readily learned and may lead to positive effects on social communication and challenging behaviors.
  • Effects on speech development are unclear.
  • Augmentative and Alternative Communication