Learner performance in multimedia learning arrangements: An analysis across instructional approaches

Jun 27, 2013, 16:19 PM
Eysink, T.H.S., de Jong, T., Berthold, K., Kolloffel, B., Opfermann, M., & Wouters, P. (2009). Learner Performance in Multimedia Learning Arrangements: An Analysis Across Instructional Approaches. American Educational Research Journal, 46(4), 1107-1149.

Characteristics

  • Grade/Age level:10th and 11th grade students
  • Specific Difficulty: Math-probability theory
  • Type of AT used: Computer-based learning with 4 theoretical approaches summary content

Setting

Method

  • Computer-based learning was used to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of four learning strategies a) hypermedia learning (tell me), b) observational learning (show me), c) self-explanation-based learning (let me explain), and d) inquiry learning (let me investigate) to teach probability theory to high school students.
  • This article describes 2 quasi-experimental designed studies, one conducted in Germany and one in the Netherlands; each study used the same subject matter, materials, same pre and posttests and procedures.
  • Participants were 624 10th and 11th grade students (n=265 German, n=259 Dutch).
  • Assessment measures included a participant characteristics questionnaire, pretest and posttest probability theory knowledge measures, and cognitive load measures during pre and posttests.
  • Effectiveness indicators were developed for knowledge and cognitive load efficiency.

Results

  • Pretest scores were found to vary between instructional approaches, so they were taken as a covariate in further analyses.
  • Effectiveness I: Knowledge
  • A main effect was found for instructional approach with students in the self-explanation-based learning scoring higher than all others and inquiry learning scored higher than hypermedia learning and observational learning.
  • A main effect was found for conceptual knowledge of problem category with students in the self-explanation-based learning scoring higher than those in hypermedia and observation-based learning.
  • A main effect was found for intuitive knowledge between instructional approaches, with students in the self-explanation-based learning scoring higher than those in the observation-based and hypermedia approaches.
  • A main effect was found for procedural knowledge, with students in the self-explanation-based learning scoring higher than students in all other conditions, and those in the hypermedia group scoring higher than the other two approaches.
  • A main effect was found for situational knowledge, with students in the self-explanation learning scoring higher than observation-based and hypermedia learning.
  • Effectiveness II: Cognitive load 
  • A main effect was found for students in the observational learning group, which had higher loads than inquiry and self-explanation-based learning; hypermedia had higher loads than self-explanation-based learning.
  • Discussion:
  • The self-explanation-based learning was found to be the most effective instructional approach, followed by inquiry-based learning.
  • Self-explanation-based learning takes the most time and hypermedia learning takes the least amount of time.
  • Approaches in which students help generate the subject matter are more effective than approaches with direct instruction.
Categories:
  • Math
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